Lancaster maintains its position in the top 10 rankings
Lancaster has been ranked ninth out of 129 universities for a consecutive year in the Complete University Guide 2018.
This reaffirms their status as a triple top ten university as by also being ranked in the Top 10 in the two other major league tables: The Times and Sunday Times and The Guardian.
Vice-Chancellor Professor Mark E. Smith expressed said he was delighted.
“These league tables reflect our success in offering a world-class student experience. As well as recruiting the best staff from across the world, we offer outstanding student facilities and excellent teaching which will equip graduates well for their future careers.”
In addition to the overall ranking, Lancaster has registered 13 of the 34 subjects it offers in the top ten.
Top ten subject rankings:
- 1st Dance, Drama and Cinematics
- 2nd Social Work
- 4th Creative Writing
- 5th Communication and Media Studies and Marketing
- 6th Religious Studies, Mechanical Engineering and Accounting and Finance
- 7th General Engineering
- 8th German and Linguistics
- 9th Geography and Environmental Science
- 10th Politics
Lancaster rising up the ranks for student experience
Over 15,000 students from across the UK took part in this year’s Times Higher Education (THE) Student Experience Survey, and ranked Lancaster as one of the UK’s top twenty five universities.
Positioned 21 out of 122 universities, Lancaster performed well in all aspects considered and were ranked particularly highly for Accommodation, Security, Facilities and Student Social Life.
The University’s recent investment in improving student experience has paid off as they climbed 10 places overall and were impressively ranked joint first for their exceptional library facilities after a multi-million pound refurbishment.
Director of Library Services Peter Maggs said: “A good library that is effective and supports teaching, learning and research, and offers a really innovative learning space, is something people see as central to the university.”
Lancaster climbs in league table rankings
The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide
Lancaster University ranks 9th overall in the UK according to The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide 2017. This shows an impressive climb again for the university, rising two spots from 11th in 2016.
In addition to continued progress in overall rankings, Lancaster University claims top 10 rankings for 18 of its individual subjects.
Top 10 individual subject rankings:
- 1st Dance, Drama and Cinematics
- 1st Social Work
- 2nd Accounting & Finance
- 2nd French
- 2nd German
- 4th Communications and Media Studies
- 4th Theology and Religious Studies
- 5th Business Studies
- 5th Linguistics
- 5th Politics
- 6th Creative Writing
- 6th Mechanical Engineering
- 6th Philosophy
- 7th Art and Design
- 7th Geography and Environmental Science
- 8th Physics and Astronomy
- 9th Mathematics
- 10th Medicine
Lancaster achieved a further top 20 success in 8 individual subjects including English (11th), Subjects allied to Medicine (11th), History (12th), Iberian Languages (14th), Chemical Engineering (17th), Electrical and Electronic Engineering (17th), Computer Science (18th) and Biological Sciences (19th).
Lancaster University rankings continue to confirm a top university
The Guardian University Guide and Complete University Guide have both released their annual league table rankings for 2017, featuring Lancaster University highly ranked in both.
What are league table rankings?
League table rankings are lists of universities ordered, or ranked, according to various criteria. These rankings are released every year and usually created by newspapers, governments or academics. Each ranking calculates their table with specific requirements, but all look at similar qualities. Student satisfaction, graduate prospects and grades are just a few of the qualities rankings look at. Some rankings only look at universities in the UK, while others evaluate universities worldwide.
League table rankings are a reliable way of comparing universities to help you identify the best options for you.
The Guardian University Guide 2017
The Guardian University Guide ranks Lancaster University 8th in the UK. Lancaster University also appeared in the top 10 for 9 subjects:
- 2nd Engineering: Mechanical
- 4th Sociology
- 5th Drama & Dance
- 6th Engineering: Chemical
- 6th Mathematics
- 7th History
- 8th Accounting & Finance
- 8th Business, Management & Marketing
- 10th Religious Studies and Theology
The Complete University Guide 2017
The Complete University Guide 2017 ranks Lancaster University 9th in the UK overall, with 18 courses appearing in the top 10:
- 2nd Marketing
- 3rd Communication and Media Studies
- 3rd Social Work
- 4th Creative Writing
- 4th French
- 5th Drama, Dance & Cinematics
- 5th Iberian Languages
- 6th Linguistics
- 7th Mechanical Engineering
- 8th General Engineering
- 8th Philosophy
- 8th Theology & Religious Studies
- 9th Accounting & Finance
- 9th Art & Design
- 9th Business & Management Studies
- 9th Politics
- 10th Geography & Environmental Science
- 10th Mathematics
Tips for your September arrival at Lancaster University International Study Centre
Here are some tips to help you get ready to study in Lancaster.
With September just about the corner, now is the time to start preparing for your exciting journey to Lancaster! If you’re feeling a little nervous, take a breath and relax. We have gathered some tips to help you prepare and settle into life abroad.
At Lancaster University International Study Centre, term starts Monday 3rd October. Be sure to arrive on time for induction at 8:45am at the Biology Lecture Theatre (map reference 43A).
We recommend flying into Manchester Airport, as it is the closest international airport to Lancaster. Before catching your flight, you’re going to want to be sure that you have everything you need. You’ll be able to buy most things you need once you arrive, but there are some things you will need to bring from home.
Before you leave:
- Confirm your accommodation
- Book your flights
- Complete the pre-arrival form
- Book your taxi transfer
It is really important that you make copies of all your documents. Different documents will be needed throughout your journey to Lancaster and during your first week.
What to bring with you on your first day:
- Evidence of your Secure English language test
- Passport and visa
- Sponsor letter (if you are being sponsored)
Make sure you’ve downloaded our pre-arrival guide. This guide covers what else you will need and the documents you will want to carry with you while travelling.
After you’ve arrived and settled in, take this opportunity to meet your classmates and say hello to your new neighbours. The other students will be feeling many of the same things you are. Talking to each other will help to ease any nerves.
During your first week you will have a complete introduction to the University, Lancaster and the International Study Centre. This week is often called “induction”. Throughout the week there will be a range of fun activities for new students. Be sure you arrive on time and prepared for induction. After induction you will have the opportunity to find scheduled events on campus and clubs or societies to join.
After you’ve met your neighbours and attended induction, you might have some extra time to explore your new home city. Lancaster is a historic city with a wide range of historic buildings and a bountiful arts scene. You are sure to enjoy the combination of lively city living with easy access to beautiful English countryside and stunning coastlines nearby.
For first time visitors, guided city tours can be a great way to learn the layout of your new home. Lancaster has a great transportation system, including buses and a railway station connecting the city to the rest of Britain.
Happening in October:
Remember, no matter how you choose to spend your free time, your fellow students are feeling nervous too. It can be hard being far from home. Take some friends with you to explore! Keep in mind our International Study Centre staff are always available to help.
Other useful websites for planning your time in Lancaster:
Find us online:
Lancaster listed among the top 60 universities in Europe
Lancaster University has been rated 59th out of the top 200 European universities in a new Times Higher Education World Ranking.
To make it onto the list, the University had to demonstrate excellence across a range of measures, including teaching environment, research, knowledge transfer and international outlook. Lancaster stood out from thousands of other institutions across Europe that did not meet the criteria.
Phil Baty, editor, THE World University Rankings, said: “The new Times Higher Education European University Ranking is based on the same rigorous and exacting group of 13 performance indicators used to compile the overall Times Higher Education World University Rankings, so it is a great achievement to make this new, prestigious top 200 list.”
Globally, the THE World Rankings place Lancaster at 130, and it has reached 121st position in the QS World University Rankings.
Back in the UK, the Guardian and the Complete University Guide both feature Lancaster in their top 10s.
The University just missed out on a top 10 place in the latest Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide, coming in 11th place overall. Yet it achieved top 10 success in many of its individual subjects: Medicine (9th), Accounting and Finance (4th), Art and Design (7th), Business Studies (=5th), Chemical Engineering (joint 8th), Communications and Media (1st), Creative Writing (4th), Drama, Dance and Cinematics (10th), Economics (8th), French (6th), Iberian languages (6th), Linguistics (4th), Maths (9th), Philosophy (7th), Sociology (5th), Mechanical Engineering (7th), Politics (6th), Social Work (2nd), and Subjects Allied to Medicine (= 8th).
Joining us this month?
The next entry date is on 11th January 2016. To help plan your exciting student journey to Lancaster, we have put together some useful tips.
Before you start packing
- Arrange your accommodation
If you haven’t already done so, please complete, sign and return your tenancy agreement to email@example.com. Once everything has been processed, you will receive confirmation and details of your new room. You can find out more on our accommodation page.
You will need to bring paper copies with you as you may need to show them at the UK border.
What you need to pack
You’ll be able to buy most things you need to live comfortably in one of the shops nearby. The International Study Centre (ISC) has an informal dress code and friendly atmosphere, so you can bring your comfortable clothes, such as trainers, jeans and t-shirts. It's also worth packing a coat for the winter months.
Most of your personal items, such as clothes, books, travel adaptors and laptops can be packed away in your suitcase, but don't forget to leave the essentials for your hand luggage.
Things to pack in your hand luggage
- Visa/Home Office letter
- Confirmation of Acceptance for Study letter (CAS)
- Offer letter
- Accommodation documents (including your signed tenancy agreement)
- Academic qualification certificate
- Sponsor letter (if you are being sponsored)
- Four passport-sized photographs
- Essential toiletries
- If you are under the age of 18, a copy of your UK Guardian details
- A copy of your Arrivals/ Transfer Confirmation letter
- Up to £150 (British Pounds Sterling) in cash. Please do not bring £50 notes.
TOP TIP: Check with your airline which items (specifically food and liquids) you can bring on the flight with you and the maximum hand luggage size allowed.
Get to know your new home
You can start making friends before you arrive by getting involved with our student community on Facebook. We've also listed some websites to help you discover your new home from home.
Your first day
Please arrive on time and report to the Biology Lecture Theatre at 09:00 on Monday 11 January 2016 for registration.
Things to bring with you on your first day:
- UKVI Decision Letter
- Sponsor letter (if you are being sponsored)
- If you are under the age of 18, a copy of your UK Guardian’s details
First day nerves?
Many students feel a little nervous on the first day – don't worry, this is perfectly natural. Other students at the ISC will be feeling the same, so talking to them will help you feel more confident and you will soon make new friends. Our staff will also be there to support you every step of the way.
Your first week
As part of induction you will receive information about your course, such as timetables and academic information, and meet your tutors.
You will also learn about:
- Obtaining your Biometric Residence Permit
- Opening a bank account
- UK laws and culture
- Registering with the health service and the police (if necessary)
- Registering with the University and receiving your student card
- Getting set up and logged on to the University internet network
- Getting information about the University sports facilities and gym memberships.
We wish you the best of luck in your studies, we know you'll have an amazing time in Lancaster!
Lancaster edges ever closer to top-10 glory
Narrowly missing out on a top-10 spot in the latest edition of The Times and Sunday Times University League Tables 2016, Lancaster University is making steady progress towards the top.
Now ranked 11th overall in the UK, the globally recognised University did achieve sought-after top-10 places in several individual subject areas:
- Communication and Media Studies – 1st
- Accounting and Finance – 4th
- Business Studies – 5th
- Sociology – 5th
- Politics – 6th
- Mechanical Engineering – 7th
- Chemical Engineering – 8th
- Economics – 8th
- Subjects allied to medicine – 8th
- Geography and Environmental Science – 9th
- Mathematics – 9th
Lancaster achieved top-20 success in Physics and Astronomy (12th), Biological Sciences (14th) and Electrical and Electronic Engineering (17th).
The safe and attractive campus university is the ideal environment for nurturing outstanding outcomes.
Lancaster University celebrates top 10 in the National Student Survey 2015
Scoring 91%, Lancaster University continues to improve student experience.
Whilst the UK average satisfaction score remained at 86% overall, Lancaster University has increased their score by 2%, and achieved 100% overall satisfaction in three subjects: Sociology, Social Policy and Anthropology.
Professor Sharon Huttly, Pro Vice-Chancellor for Education, said: “We are committed to innovation and excellence in teaching and are delighted that our students have rated their experience so highly. These results establish Lancaster as one of the highest quality teaching institutions in the UK.”
The National Student Survey is compiled annually by market research agency, Ipsos MORI on behalf of funding bodies for UK higher education. The responses are given by final year students anonymously to encourage honest opinions and reliable results.
A new online postgraduate programme at Lancaster University Management School
Lancaster University has launched a unique online Masters programme designed for international students to develop future responsible global leaders.
Studying this part-time MSc, practising managers will be equipped with the relevant skills, knowledge and mindset to lead the ethical, sustainable businesses of tomorrow.
Developed by the Lancaster Leadership Centre, the course is the centre’s first-ever online leadership programme.
With online learning, students are able to engage with an international network of like-minded individuals to explore global responsibility challenges and issues.
The Lancaster Leadership Centre has a ten-year legacy specialising in leadership development and operates within a network of leadership centres around the world.
Professor Steven Kempster, Director of the Lancaster Leadership Centre at Lancaster University said:
“We’re pleased to launch this exciting new programme which we envisage will create a community of international leaders educated on new approaches to ethical leadership and practice.”
He added: “The flexible design of the course means that experienced, employed managers can study the programme part-time around existing work and home commitments.
“The diverse range of topics make it interesting and relevant – how you can become a responsible leader and how you can use it to influence leaders and other stakeholders around, above and below you.”
Students will enhance their leadership practice through drawing on their own workplace experience with encouraged reflection and critical thinking.
There is also an opportunity to carry out a major leadership challenge where students can implement change initiatives in their organisation.
The programme includes modules on Responsible Leadership: Reflections and Challenges; Growing Responsible Business: Purpose, Process and People; and Conscious Capitalism.
Starting in September 2015, this flexible online programme can be studied over a period of 18-48 months to fit around individual student’s commitments.
Find out more about the MSc in Leadership Practice and Responsibility.
Contact us for more information and to apply
Lancaster University is ranked in the top 3 for job prospects
Lancaster’s strengths in accounting, engineering and marketing combined with an on-campus recruitment agency means that students are well prepared for work when they graduate.
The Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) compiled the rankings based on the percentage of students in employment or further study within 6 months of graduating in 2013/14, with Lancaster achieving 97%.
The campus has seen a lot of investment of recent years, and with more to come, students can expect some of the best facilities to further enhance their career prospects after University.
Click here to read the full results on The Telegraph website.
Strong performance in the Guardian University Guide 2016
The Guardian University Guide 2016, published this week, ranks Lancaster in 10th place – the same as its ranking last year.
Another strong performance for Lancaster demonstrates its strong position among UK's top universities.
The University also achieved outstanding results in subject-specific rankings, with 19 subjects listed in the top 20:
2nd for Physics
5th for Drama & dance
6th for Accounting and finance
7th for Art and Chemical engineering
8th Media & film studies
9th for Biosciences
10th for History and Social work
12th for Mathematics
13th for Mechanical engineering
14th for English & creative writing
15th for Religious studies and theology
15th for Geography & environmental studies
16th for Business, management & marketing and Computer science & information systems and Sociology
18th for Modern languages & linguistics
19th for Economics
The Guardian University Guide ranks institutions by key measures such as spending per student, student-staff ratios, graduate career prospects and student satisfaction.
For more information, please visit theguardian.com/education/universityguide
Marketing for the real world: Lancaster’s strong links with industry in action
This time it is a luxury, tailor-made travel company based in the town of Rochdale, not too far from Lancaster in North West England, which is benefitting from the marketing talent of two students from Lancaster University.
Hui Zhang and Chaoying Lian, both studying for the MSc Management at Lancaster, have already proven their worth to future employers by delivering a successful eight-week research project.
Forward-thinking travel agent, eShores successfully carries out the bulk of its business online. But the team were open to finding out whether the Lancaster management students could add value to their current marketing strategy.
Hui and Chaoying's report exceeded expectations.
Gavin Lapidus, Managing Director of eShores, was very keen to listen to their recommendations on how he could grow the business offline. He concluded:
“We found the project even more useful than we were expecting. The students gave us thorough industry data as well as providing useful competitor analysis.”
Demonstrating a keen awareness of just what employers are looking for in graduates, student Hui Zhang said:
“I think that this project will definitely help me to get a job after university. Unlike other graduates, we have worked with a real client in a consulting role, so we have experience that we can relate to and talk about.”
The project, initiated by the Rochdale Development Agency, strengthens the relationship between Lancaster University Management School and Rochdale Council, who work together to support development in North West England. It is just one of over 140 consultancy-based research projects successfully carried out by LUMS in partnership with local businesses in 2014.
If you are inspired by the success of Hui and Chaoying, find out how you can work towards a business-related degree at Lancaster University – visit our Business and Management International Foundation Year programme page
Read the full article on the University's website.
Autumn in the UK
Autumn is a colourful and lively season of the year in the UK. As the days get shorter and the weather turns colder, the trees start to shed their leaves, turning towns and countryside beautiful shades of yellow, auburn and red. There are many things to see and do, including taking part in fun celebrations such as Bonfire Night.
Remember, remember the 5th of November
Bonfire Night, also known as Guy Fawkes Night, is an annual celebration that started in the early 17th century. The story begins back in 1605 when Guy Fawkes, a member of the Gunpowder Plot, was arrested for planning to blow up the House of Lords in London and King James I along with it. To celebrate the failed attempt on the King's life, people of London lit bonfires. This practice soon became an annual celebration. Today, Guy Fawkes Night is celebrated with stunning firework displays across the UK, simulating the explosive gunpowder Fawkes intended to use in his plot. You can join in with the celebrations by going along to your local bonfire or fireworks night – don't forget your sparklers!
Lancaster celebrates this time of year with its own two day festival - Light Up Lancaster. Find out more about local events on the Lancaster City Council website.
Lancaster University has been shortlisted for THE Awards 2014
We’re delighted to reveal that Lancaster University has been shortlisted in the Outstanding Contribution to the Local Community category as part of the prestigious Times Higher Education (THE) Awards 2014.
The award for this category will be given to the university which has successfully aided the wider community in a social, economic, or cultural way.
Now in the tenth year, THE Awards recognise and celebrate the best universities, teams and individuals in UK education. A shortlist of six finalists has been selected for each of the 18 categories and winners will be announced at the awards ceremony, which will be held on 27 November 2014. The full shortlist is available on THE Awards website.
Lancaster continues investment with state-of-the-art engineering facility
There are exciting new developments on campus as Lancaster University continues its investment programme with a new building for the Engineering department. The new building will have the latest resources and expand the engineering department to include specialisms in nuclear, chemical and energy engineering.
Designed and built to National Sustainability and Carbon Reduction targets for both 2016 and 2022, the building should achieve the new BREEAM 2011 Outstanding rating for building efficiency - a great start to the leading engineering developments we look forward to seeing from the department in years to come.
The world-class facility will include specially designed workshops, teaching laboratories and department offices and will open towards the end of 2014.
Check out this visualisation to see what the finished building will look like.
Watch the mesmerising time-lapse video of the demolition and construction of the new building.
Lancaster University edges into the top 10 of the latest Guardian league table
Granted its Royal Charter just 50 years ago, Lancaster University is considered to be one of the UK’s top universities. And theGuardian agrees. The latest edition of its touchstone higher education league table places Lancaster in the top 10, alongside prestigious Russell Group institutions.
Helping the university rise up the rankings to take 10th place, Lancaster’s students have once again awarded high course satisfaction rates in the annual National Student Survey. Which, alongside its staff / student ratio, academic entry requirements, comparison between students’ entry qualifications and their final degree results, graduate career prospects, and spend per student, add up to this well-deserved recognition for the prestigious campus-based university in North West England.
Individual subjects ranked highly in the Guardian table include Accounting and Finance; Business, Management and Marketing; Art; Mechanical Engineering; Biological Sciences; Drama and Dance; Computing; Physics; Geography and Environmental Science; Mathematics; and Social Work, which takes 2nd place in the UK.
See the full 2015 league table listing, on the Guardian
New Mathematics and Statistics pathway for International Foundation Year launched
We are pleased to announce a new International Foundation Year pathway at our Lancaster
University ISC allowinginternational students the chance to progress into the first year of a range of Mathematics and Statistics undergraduate degrees for the first time. Lancaster University is ranked in the global top 1% in the world, and in Mathematics is ranked in the UK top 10 by both the Guardian and Complete University Guide 2014. The QS World rankings 2013 placed Lancaster University in the world's top 100 for Statistics.
For more details, including start dates and module information; please visit the Mathematics and Statistics page.
Also check out our latest list of Lancaster ISC progression degrees. New progression degrees for our 2014 students include International Relations, Law and Politics, Environmental Science (ranked 3rd in the UK by the Guardian 2014), and Chemical Engineering.
Lancaster wins ‘Best University Halls’ award
Lancaster has won ‘Best University Halls’ in the National Student Housing Survey 2013 - for the fourth year. Grizedale Townhouses took ‘Best Learning Environment’, a prize they last won two years ago. Lancaster has kept the International Student Quality Mark – one of only 8 institutions or private providers to achieve it.
The mark is awarded to organisations who achieve at least a 90% positive satisfaction rating from international students. All Lancaster International Study Centre students who apply within the specified deadlines are guaranteed a place in campus accommodation.
Subjects score highly in UK and global league tables
Marketing is ranked first in the UK in the Complete University Guide 2014 and 12 other subjects are ranked in the top ten.
These are Art & Design ranked 2nd , Biological Sciences ranked 10th; Business and Management Studies ranked 7th; Communication and Media Studies ranked 10th; Drama, Dance and Cinematics ranked 7th; Geography and Environmental Science ranked 10th; Linguistics 8th ; Marketing 1st; Mathematics 10th; Physics and Astronomy 7th; Social Policy 7th ; Social Work 7th and Sociology ranked 5 th. Lancaster University is 11th in the table overall.
Lancaster also features in the world's elite (Top 200) institutions in 18 of the 30 subjects featured in this year's QS World University Rankings by Subject, published on 8 May 2013. Subjects ranked in the top 50 are Linguistics ranked 10th; Geography ranked 37th, Sociology ranked 38th and Accounting and Finance 47th.
Lancaster ranked in top ten for best student experience
Lancaster University has been ranked 10th in the UK in a survey of the best student experience, ranked by students.
A total of 12,000 undergraduates at 102 institutions responded to the 2013 survey from the Times Higher Education magazine.
The University was also in joint second position for the numbers of students who rated their accommodation as “good".
Lancaster won five awards last year in the National Student Housing Survey’s Accommodation Awards including the International Student Accommodation Quality Mark.
The THE survey also ranked Lancaster University’s sports facilities joint fifth in the UK, reflecting the excellent facilities on campus including the £20m Sports Centre. Around £450m has been invested on campus in recent years, mainly in teaching and learning facilities including a Student Learning Zone.
Professor Amanda Chetwynd, Pro Vice-Chancellor for colleges and the student experience, said: “We don’t just listen to what the students want, we involve them in the design and creation of the things that we’re doing. That’s what the joy of my job is, because it is entirely working with students.”
The THE survey uses categories chosen by the students themselves, such as a good campus environment, tuition in small groups, student support services, high quality facilities, a fair workload and industry connections.
It follows a similar high score for Lancaster University in last year’s National Student Survey, where satisfaction rates among undergraduates were 91 per cent, above the sector average of 85 per cent.
Lancaster University Management School wins the Times Higher Education Business School of the Year award
Lancaster University Management School (LUMS) has been named the first ever Business School of the Year at the Times Higher Education awards 2012.
LUMS was commended by the judges for its “demonstrable, consistent and considerable impact locally, regionally, nationally and internationally”.
The Dean of the Management School Professor Sue Cox OBE said: “I am delighted that the Management School has been recognised in these important awards for its outstanding performance. It’s a tribute to the talent of my colleagues and our students, partners and supporters. We are extremely proud of the region and local area and part of the award has recognised the impact that our work has had in helping business in the NW region and boosting our local economy.”
For further details and a full list of winners click here.
Satisfaction rate rises at Lancaster University
Students at Lancaster University are more satisfied than ever before according to the annual National Student Survey 2012.
Satisfaction rates among undergraduates rose from 88 per cent last year to a joint 91 per cent and only just below a score of 92 per cent for Oxford and Cambridge.
Lancaster University also scored highly for law students with 98 per cent “definitely” or “mostly” satisfied with their course.
Around 287,000 final-year students from across the UK responded to the survey this year, a response rate of 67 per cent, the highest rate in the eight years the NSS has been running.
The results of the survey provide valuable information for prospective students, and help universities and colleges to further improve the education they provide.
Professor Amanda Chetwynd, Pro Vice Chancellor for the Student Experience, said: “Students are at the heart of everything we do at Lancaster and we will continue to work hard to meet their high expectations.”
Students at more than 300 universities and further education colleges were asked about every aspect of their university experience, including questions on teaching, assessment, support and resources.
The survey was conducted by Ipsos MORI.